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2020 Moscow Summit
Final Compliance Report

Alissa Xinhe Wang, Angela Min Yi Hou, Sonja Dobson, Brittaney Warren
and the University of Toronto BRICS Research Group,
and
Alexander Ignatov, Irina Popova, Andrey Shelepov, Andrei Sakharov
and the Center for International Institutions Research
of the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration,
Moscow
6 September 2021

This final compliance report assesses the compliance of the BRICS members over the period of 18 November 2020 to 23 August 2021. It assesses 17 priority commitments of the 45 commitments made by the leaders at the virtual Moscow Summit on 17 November 2020.

This report was prepared by the BRICS Research Group led by the Center for International Institutions Research of the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA) and the Global Governance Program at Trinity College in the University of Toronto.

Download the full report here. See the scores in Table 3.

We welcome feedback on this report! If you have any comment about our assessment, or if you know of any actions taken by a BRICS member between 18 November 2020 to 23 August 2021 that might affect that assessment, please contact us at brics@utoronto.ca


Introduction and Summary

The 2020 BRICS Moscow Final Compliance Report, prepared by the BRICS Research Group (based at the University of Toronto and the Center for International Institutions Research of the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration [RANEPA]), analyses compliance performance by BRICS countries with 17 priority commitments drawn from the total 45 commitments made by the leaders at the Moscow Summit, which was held virtually on 17 November 2020 as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic.

The final report covers actions taken by the BRICS countries to implement the selected commitments between 18 November 2020 and 23 August 2021.

Methodology and Scoring System

This report draws on the methodology developed by the G7 Research Group, which has been monitoring G7 compliance since 1996 and adapted for monitoring G20 performance since 2008.[1]The use of this time-tested methodology provides for cross-institutional, cross-member and cross-issue consistency and thus allows compatibility and comparability of the compliance performance by different summit institutions and establishes a foundation for evidence-based assessment of the effectiveness of these institutions.[2]

The methodology uses a scale from −1 (0%) to +1 (100%), where +1 (50%) indicates full compliance with the stated commitment, −1 indicates a failure to comply or action taken that is directly opposite to the stated goal of the commitment, and 0 indicates partial compliance or work in progress, such as initiatives that have been launched but are not yet near completion and whose final results can therefore not be assessed.[3] Each member receives a score of −1, 0 or +1 for each commitment.

Breakdown of Commitments

At the Moscow Summit in 2020, the BRICS leaders focused on three pillars: policy and security, economy and finance, and culture and people-to-people exchanges. The theme was "BRICS Partnership for Global Stability, Shared Security and Innovative Growth." The topics discussed included being united for a better world; the COVID-19 pandemic and the Access to COVID-19 Tools Accelerator initiative; a global ceasefire, international peace and security, disarmament and non-proliferation, counter-terrorism, and anti-corruption In the economic sphere, BRICS leaders acknowledged that the adverse impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on economic growth and discussed how to address new challenges, including through the World Trade Organization (WTO) and International Monetary Fund as well as reforming both institutions.

Selection of Commitments

For each compliance cycle (that is, the period between summits), the research team selects commitments that reflect the breadth of the BRICS agenda and the priorities of the summit's host, while balancing the selection to allow for comparison with past and future summits.[4] The selection also takes into account the breakdown of issue areas and the proportion of commitments in each one (see Table 1). The primary criteria for selecting a priority commitment for assessment are the comprehensiveness and relevance to the summit, the BRICS and the world. Selected commitments must meet secondary criteria such as measurability and ability to comply within a year. Tertiary criteria include significance, as identified by relevant stakeholders in the host country and scientific teams. Of the 45 commitments made at the virtual 2020 Moscow Summit, the BRICS Research Group selected 17 priority commitments for its compliance assessment (see Table 2).

Compliance Scores

Compliance for the 2020 Moscow Summit final report is +0.44 (72%) (see Table 3). This is the same as the 72% compliance with commitments made at the 2019 Brasilia Summit. While these two years have seen the lowest compliance score since 2011 when it was 64%, the COVID-19 pandemic continues to have an impact on compliance in 2021.

By country, host India received the highest compliance score at +0.65 (82%), followed by Russia at +0.47 (74%). Brazil and China both received a score of +0.41 (71%), with South Africa earning a score of +0.24 (62%).

By issue, six commitments earned the top score of +1 (100%): the trade commitment on enhancing BRICS trade; the trade commitment on WTO reform; the macroeconomics commitment on micro, small and medium sized enterprises; the health commitment on COVID-19 vaccines; the health commitment on joint responses; and the climate change commitment on the Paris Agreement. The commitment on the digital divide received a score of +0.80 (90%). Both the development commitment on Africa and COVID-19 and the terrorism commitment on supporting the UN earned a score of +0.40 (70%). The macroeconomics commitment on national currencies and the international taxation commitment on tax avoidance received scores of +0.20 (60%). Five commitments received a score of 0 (50%): the commitment on international financial institution reform, the digital economy commitment on the E-Commerce Working Group, the regional security commitment on North Korea, the crime and corruption commitment on BRICS cooperation, and the energy commitment on energy investment. Finally, the regional security commitment on Iraq received a score of −0.60 (20%).

Notes

[1] The Compliance Coding Manual is available at http://www.g7.utoronto.ca/evaluations/index.html#method

[2] Informal summitry institutions are defined as international institutions with limited membership, relatively low bureaucracy and reliance on open, flexible and voluntary approaches. Regular meetings of the heads of states and governments who engage on a wide range of international, regional and domestic politics stand at the pinnacle of such international arrangements, which involve many actors operating according to established procedures on two levels: domestic and international. Commitments contained in the collectively agreed documents are not legally-binding but their implementation is stimulated by peer pressure. Among such bodies engaged in global and regional governance are G7/G8, G20, BRICS, APEC and others.

[3] The formula to convert a score into a percentage is P=50×(S+1), where P is the percentage and S is the score.

[4] Guidelines for choosing priority commitments, as well as other applicable considerations, are available in the Compliance Coding Manual.

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Table 1: Distribution of BRICS Commitments across Issue Areas, 2009-2020

Issue Area 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Energy 5 9 1 2         6 2 2 3
Finance   3 1     6 6 5 9 5 1  
Climate change   1 6 3 1 1 1 1 3   3 1
Macroeconomic policy   1 5 1 5 7 6 4 4 3 1 2
Trade   3 5 9 4 4 5 2 6 4 3 2
International cooperation 1 2 5 3 6 8 30 7 21 18 8 8
Socioeconomic 1 1 3 2   7 5 2   2    
Development 1 5 1 3 10 4 4 2 11 6 2 3
Natural disasters 1 1 1                  
Food and agriculture 3   1 1   1 17   5 3   2
ICT     2     1 17 3 12 3 2 3
Science and education 1 1 1     2 5          
Health     1 1   1 6 2 6 1   4
Human rights     1   1 2 5   2   1  
Accountability     1                  
Regional security 1   1 4 8 6 6 4 12 7 4 7
Terrorism     1 1 2 2 1 4 7 3 1 2
Culture   1       3 1 2 3     1
Sport   1                    
IFI reform 1 2 1 2 9 8 3 2 5 2 2 1
Non-proliferation         1     1 2   1  
Crime and corruption           4 10 3 8 6 10 3
Environment           1 1 1 3 3 3  
Tourism             1     1    
International taxation                   4 5 1
Space                       1
Inter-BRICS cooperation                       1
Total 15 31 38 32 47 68 130 45 125 73 49 45

Note: ICT = information and communications technology; IFI = international financial institutions.

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Table 2: 2020 BRICS Moscow Summit Priority Commitments

  Issue Area Commitment
1 Reform of International Financial Institutions: Role of BRICS Cooperate on the issues of reforming the international financial architecture with a focus on increasing the role of BRICS
2 Development: Africa and COVID-19 We reaffirm our readiness to develop further cooperation with the African continent, including with the aim to strengthening its potential to address the intertwined health, economic, and social effects of COVID-19.
3 Trade: Enhance BRICS Trade [Noting the current challenges for balanced, inclusive and resilient economic growth of BRICS, the BRICS members will take actions to:] enhance trade and economic cooperation, including with respect to reducing barriers in mutual trade in goods and services, where possible.
4 Trade: Reform of the World Trade Organization We support the necessary reform of the WTO with a view to making it more resilient and effective in confronting global economic challenges and to improve its key functions in the interest of all WTO Members. [The reform must, inter alia, preserve the centrality, core values and fundamental principles of the WTO, and consider the interests of all members, including developing countries and LDC, recognizing that the majority of WTO members are developing countries.]
5 Macroeconomics: Micro, Small and Medium Sized Enterprises [BRICS members will take actions to:] create a favorable domestic legal framework for the BRICS MSMEs to enter global markets.
6 Macroeconomics: National Currencies Promote work to increase the share of national currencies in mutual payments.
7 Digital Economy: E-Commerce Working Group [In the context of accelerated development of the e-commerce sector and
increased volume of online-transactions worldwide], we will enhance our cooperation through the BRICS E-commerce Working Group.
8 Digital Economy: Digital Divide Address digital divide by bridging the gap in access of BRICS population to
digital infrastructure, digital skills and digitally enabled services and ensure inclusion of digitally deprived segments of society by laying special stress on improving the access and connectivity of people living in rural areas, as well as groups of persons with disabilities, to the Internet.
9 Health: COVID-19 Vaccine We acknowledge initiatives by the WHO, governments, non-profit organizations, research institutes and the pharmaceutical industry to expedite the research, development and production of the COVID-19 vaccine and therapeutics, and support cooperative approaches in this regard.] We will work to ensure that, when available, it is disseminated in a fair, equitable and affordable basis.
10 Health: Joint Responses [Recalling all BRICS Leader's Declarations since Ufa (2015)], we reiterate our commitment to further enhance BRICS cooperation in addressing the
challenges to health and human well-being including through developing effective joint responses to the continuing spread of major diseases (HIV/AIDS, TB, malaria and others) and the emergence of infections with a pandemic potential.
11 Terrorism: Supporting the United Nations [The BRICS countries will] deepen their cooperation to reaffirm comprehensive implementation of the UN Global Counter- 4 Terrorism Strategy in a balanced way.
12 Regional Security:North Korea [We express our support for continuing the diplomatic negotiations in bilateral and multilateral formats to resolve all issues pertaining to the Korean Peninsula, including its complete denuclearization, and maintain peace and stability in North East Asia.] We reaffirm the commitment to a comprehensive peaceful, diplomatic and political solution to the situation.
13 Regional Security: Iraq We reaffirm our continued support for efforts by the Iraqi Government towards national reconstruction, development and a mutually respectful and inclusive national dialogue.
14 Crime and Corruption: BRICS Cooperation [We reaffirm our commitment to]…strengthen BRICS collaboration, including within multilateral frameworks, subject to domestic legal systems, on all issues related to anti-corruption law enforcement, including on matters related to asset recovery and denying safe haven to corrupt persons and proceeds of corruption
15 Climate Change: Paris Agreement We reiterate our commitment to the implementation of the Paris Agreement adopted under the principles of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), including the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, in the light of different national circumstances.
16 Energy: Energy Investment [We will enhance strategic partnership in energy by]…facilitating mutual investments
17 International Taxation:Tax Avoidance We remain committed to enhancing international cooperation to put an end to tax avoidance strategies that exploit gaps and mismatches in tax rules.

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Table 3: 2020 BRICS Moscow Summit Final Compliance Scores

  Issue Areas Brazil Russia India China South Africa Average
1 International Financial Institution Reform: Role of BRICS 0 0 0 0 0 0 50%
2 Development: Africa and COVID-19 −1 0 +1 +1 +1 +0.40 70%
3 Trade: Enhance BRICS Trade +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1.00 100%
4 Trade: Reform of the World Trade Organization +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1.00 100%
5 Macroeconomics: Micro, Small and Medium Sized Enterprises +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1.00 100%
6 Macroeconomics: National Currencies +1 0 −1 +1 0 +0.20 60%
7 Digital Economy: E-Commerce Working Group 0 0 0 0 0 0 50%
8 Digital Economy: Digital Divide +1 +1 +1 0 +1 +0.80 90%
9 Health: COVID-19 Vaccine +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1.00 100%
10 Health: Joint Responses +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1.00 100%
11 Terrorism: Supporting the United Nations 0 +1 +1 0 0 +0.40 70%
12 Regional Security: North Korea −1 +1 +1 0 −1 0 50%
13 Regional Security: Iraq −1 −1 0 0 −1 −0.60 20%
14 Crime and Corruption: BRICS Cooperation 0 0 0 0 0 0 50%
15 Climate Change: Paris Agreement +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 100%
16 Energy: Energy Investment +1 0 +1 −1 −1 0 50%
17 International Taxation: Tax Avoidance +1 0 +1 0 −1 +0.20 60%
  Average +0.41 +0.47 +0.65 +0.41 +0.24 +0.44 72%
71% 74% 82% 71% 62% 72%  

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Research Team

Dr. Marina Larionova, Co-director, BRICS Research Group
Professor John Kirton, Co-director, BRICS Research Group
Brittaney Warren, Researcher, BRICS Research Group

University of Toronto Research Team

Alissa Xinhe Wang, Co-Chair of Summit Studies, BRICS Research Group
Angela Min Yi Hou, Co-Chair of Summit Studies, BRICS Research Group
Sonja Dobson, Editor-in-Chief, BRICS Research Group

Omar S. Abdellatif
Adebisi Akande
Landon Apollo Leone
Ana Brinkerhoff
Anna B. M. L. Carneiro/
Isabel Davis
Erfan Ehsan
Joy Fan
Wenny (Yiyao) Jin
Leila Koohi
Areej Malik
Ashton Mathias
Sarah Nasir
Alexandra Nicu
Pantea Jamshidi Nouri
Natasha Pirzada
Kelley Prendergast
Yana Sadeghi
Naomi Shi
Ayaz Syed
Farley Sweatman
Wing Ka Tsang
Christina (Wing Gi) Tse
Shreya Vohra
Charlie Lecheng Zeng

RANEPA Research Team

Alexander Ignatov
Irina Popova
Andrei Sakharov
Andrey Shelepov
Anastasiya Kirillova

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